CLARK, W., "BURNING KEROSENE IN TRACTOR ENGINES," SAE Technical Paper 170031, 1917, doi:10.4271/170031.
The author states as his object a review of what has been done and what must be done to make tractors successful in operating on low-grade fuels, especially kerosene. He takes up in order the four principal methods in common use of applying heat to vaporize kerosene, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each method and of its modifications.The author then cites various experiments with different types of carbureters in burning kerosene, drawing at length upon his own experience in this connection. He cites difficulties with gas distribution, manifold condensation, pistons and spark-plugs and points out that carbureter design is inseparable from considerations of tractor engine and manifold design. That better progress has not been made in the past in developing kerosene-burning tractor engines is stated to be largely owing to the fact that there has not been sufficient cooperation between engine and carbureter manufacturers. Kerosene engine design is next considered at some length, followed by a section on distribution of the fuel. The final section is on the subject of educating the user. Several curves are included illustrating the performance of different types and sizes of engines using kerosene as fuel, with and without the addition of water.