Uytterhaeghe, L. and Malteste, S., "Impact Management System: A Global Approach," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1016, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1016.
Today the challenge for a supplier involved in energy absorption consists in proposing modular systems able to address many different specifications. To achieve this goal, one must take into consideration the whole specification. Two solutions are described: one using hybrid thermoplastic composites beam working in bending, the other using padding systems working in compression on a stiff member between two front rails. The two solutions are compared in terms of performances, costs, and weight.