A structured process for identifying and characterizing gear noise sources, and for reducing them to acceptable levels, is discussed in this paper. The procedure comprises a series of analysis, design, and testing steps that converge to an optimized design from the perspectives of noise and sound quality. The analysis step is used to establish a baseline noise signature and identify the design and operating parameters that offer the most potential for noise reduction. A test program based on the statistical design of experiments method is then used to verify the design and to provide feedback to the designer for further refinements and improvements. The test environment, analysis and measurement methodologies, and a case study with a prototypical gearset, are each presented and discussed.