It is an essential task for automobiles to reduce their fuel consumption. A direct injection gasoline engine (D-4 engine) is effective in reducing fuel consumption, but the reduction of NOx in the lean combustion region is impossible with a conventional three-way catalyst. The NOx storage-reduction three-way catalyst was put into practical use in 1994 for vehicles with lean-burn engines. This catalyst, however, is poisoned by SO2 caused by fuel sulfur, thus its activity is reduced. The conversion efficiency of this sulfur poisoned catalyst was not sufficient for reducing NOx in the exhaust gas of D-4 engine. We have, therefore, studied the mechanism of sulfur poisoning, and succeeded in improving the catalytic performance with the newly developed monolithic substrate and the newly developed additives.