Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) heat transfer enhancement is a technology that may yield substantial reductions in heat exchanger weight and volume, as well as “on-demand” heat transfer. An overall assessment of the applicability of EHD to aircraft systems is given and key areas for future investigation to enable application are identified. A brief review of the underlying physics and key factors for the application of EHD to an aircraft Environmental Control System (ECS) is given. The major engineering challenges involved in application of EHD to an aircraft system are discussed. Potential system impacts of an EHD-enhanced ECS heat exchanger are explored.