In these days of emphasizing standardization, Acquisition Reform, Non-Developed Items (NDI) and Commercial- Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies, we are facing new challenges associated with these trends. Program managers are pressured to use a standard or COTS battery, while simultaneously, the new systems being developed have increasingly complex and demanding power requirements. Hardware must be developed with shorter schedules, and policies of Acquisition Reform limit the amount of control the government has over the development of a given item. In this paper, we review battery development efforts that have resulted in unexpected problems. Relevant data from both current and past test programs are presented. Recommendations are provided concerning how to best avoid duplication of effort, while ensuring that the final product will have the best chances of succeeding.