Rottenkolber, G., Dullenkopf, K., Wittig, S., Kölmel, A. et al., "Influence of Mixture Preparation on Combustion and Emissions Inside an SI Engine by Means of Visualization, PIV and IR Thermography During Cold Operating Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3644, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-3644.
The focus of this work was to determine the influence of spray targeting on temperature distributions, combustion progress and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions at cold operating conditions, and to show the capability of model and full engine tests adapted for different measurement techniques. A comprehensive study applying endoscopic visualization, infrared thermography, combustion and emission measurements was carried out in a 4-stroke 4-cylinder 16-valve production engine with intake port injection during different engine operating conditions including injection angle and timing. In addition 2D visualization and PIV measurements were performed in a back-to-back model test section with good optical access to the intake manifold and the combustion chamber. The measurements in both set ups were in good agreement and show that model tests could lead to useful findings for a real engine.