Aradi, A., Imoehl, B., Avery, N., Wells, P. et al., "The Effect of Fuel Composition and Engine Operating Parameters on Injector Deposits in a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) Research Engine," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3690, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-3690.
The effects of fuel composition and engine operating parameters on high-pressure, direct injection gasoline (DIG) injector plugging and deposit formation have been studied. The engine used was a conventional dual-sparkplug, 2.2-liter Nissan engine modified for direct injection using one of the spark plug holes. The engine was run under 20% rich conditions to accelerate deposit formation. A ten-fuel test matrix was designed around T90, sulfur level, and olefin levels indicated in the European gasoline specifications for year 2000. The gasolines, containing no detergents, were formulated using refinery stream blends to match the specified targets. Injector flow loss was monitored by fuel flow to the engine and monitoring oxygen sensors on each of the four cylinders. The impact of fuel composition on deposit formation and injector plugging is discussed. Injector flow loss was strongly influenced by injector tip temperature. Possible causes of deposit formation were investigated through analysis of injector deposits.