Pattas, K., Samaras, Z., Kyriakis, N., Pistikopoulos, P. et al., "Investigation of the Operation of a DPF Installed on a Direct Injection Turbo Charged Vehicle with the Use of a Cerium Based Catalytic Additive," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0483, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-0483.
A direct injection turbocharged passenger car with exhaust gas recirculation was equipped with a ceramic Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and operated on fuel doped with a cerium based additive at concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 ppm. Repeat chassis dynamometer tests were carried out using the European urban cycle for trap loading, while steady state speeds were utilized for monitoring the oxidation activity inside the loaded trap. The analysis of the results is done using a number of parameters, including a mass-in-trap indicator, which reflect the oxidation activity in the trap. Thus the regeneration area is determined experimentally and an optimum combination of parameters that may be adjusted by the electronic control unit of the engine is investigated, aimed at the safe and durable operation of the DPF, without negative effects on fuel consumption and vehicle driveability.