The 1997 Kyoto International Conference Protocol committed industrialized countries to reduce their global emissions of greenhouse gases within the period 2008 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. In view of this and following the European Community directives, the Italian government approved a three-year pilot project to promote the experimental employment of biodiesel.The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are receiving increasing interest because of their low environmental impact and their potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines as they would not require any significant modification of existing engines. Consequently, an experimental research program has been developed to evaluate performance and emissions of a Diesel engine fueled with a methyl ester derived from rape seed (Rapeseed Methyl Ester or RME) by changing the composition of the diesel fuel-RME mixture.This program aims to analyze the performance and emissions of a turbocharged D.I. Diesel engine fueled with a mixture of RME and diesel fuel. In particular, the experimental investigation has performed a careful analysis of heat release, which has made it possible to give more precise information about the combustion process.