A novel two stroke cycle diesel engine is evaluated as a general aviation aircraft powerplant. Two certificated spark-ignited gasoline reciprocating engines are also evaluated in the same aircraft. The evaluation of aircraft propulsion performance considered only the effects of altered powerplant parameters on the range of an aircraft having a fixed gross weight and payload cruising at a given lift/drag ratio. Thermodynamic analysis finds the diesel engine can have a sea level power rating exceeding the 10,000 foot cruise power requirement by 55% with nearly equal specific fuel consumption, a low engine speed and a modest cylinder pressure. It uses a single-stage, radial turbocharger without intercooling or auxiliary mechanical scavenging.The diesel engine can significantly increase the range of a particular airplane now powered by a certificated turboprop engine. The candidate gasoline engines could not equal the turboprop-powered aircraft performance.