Characterization of Snowmobile Particulate Emissions

Paper #:
  • 2000-01-2003

Published:
  • 2000-06-19
Citation:
Carroll, J., White, J., Khalek, I., and Kado, N., "Characterization of Snowmobile Particulate Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2003, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2003.
Pages:
10
Abstract:
The primary goal of this project was to characterize particulate emissions from a snowmobile engine through measurement of particulate matter volatile organic fraction (VOF), particle size, and biological activity. Emissions were evaluated using both a mineral oil and a biosynthetic oil. Basic criteria pollutants were also measured from diluted exhaust using conventional techniques. Particulate matter volatile organic fraction was determined using a gas chromatographic method (DFI/GC). Particle size was characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particulate matter biological activity was measured using a modification of the Ames bioassay procedure.Results revealed that more than 99 percent of the particles were ultrafine (Dp<100nm), with a peak concentration in the nanoparticle (Dp<50nm) size range. It was also observed that the use of a biosynthetic lubricant increased both volatile and total PM mass emissions compared to the mineral lubricant. Bioassay results showed that snowmobile particulate is mutagenic.
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