Burns, J., Lamar, N., Dimick, M., and Granger, S., "Development of the L3: an Efficient, High-power, Clean-Fueled, Parallel-format, Hybrid Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-3097, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-3097.
This paper provides a concise, detailed overview of the concurrent development of a high-power, charge-sustaining, parallel-format, hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV). A brief introduction helps differentiate this effort's goals and approach from many others. Concurrent conceptual and detail design criteria and constraints and use of the highest-quality design resources in a large student team environment are discussed. Body, chassis, suspension, drive-train (including motor, engine and custom parallel transmission), energy storage and control system choices are discussed. Lessons learned from benchmarking, from a team-developed, real-time, graphical, hardware-in-the-loop simulation package and from virtual and physical mockups are shared. Experience gained in applying accepted design practice is examined. The final design and design process are evaluated for success in meeting initial goals, innovative approaches are summarized, and conclusions are drawn on the effectiveness of product, approach, teaming, resources, and decision making.