NORMAN, C. and STOCKFLETH, B., "A TRACTOR ENGINE TEST," SAE Technical Paper 200032, 1920, doi:10.4271/200032.
A four-cylinder 4 by 5-in. truck and tractor engine, designed for either kerosene or gasoline fuel and having the very low volumetric compression ratio of 3.36, was used. Only by suitable adjustments was it found possible to make it show a fuel consumption as low as 0.67 lb. per b.hp.-hr.; but with a slight variation in power and only a different carbureter adjustment the fuel consumption at 600 r.p.m. increased to about 1.2 lb., or 70 per cent, emphasizing the importance of knowing what constitutes the best engine adjustment and of disseminating such knowledge. The engine and its dimensions, the experimental apparatus and the method of testing are fully described and discussed, the results being presented in charts showing performance curves. These are described, analyzed and the results interpreted.