NORMAN, C., "ENGINE DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM POWER AND FUEL ECONOMY," SAE Technical Paper 200058, 1920, doi:10.4271/200058.
Design factors are considered from the thermodynamic standpoint only, which excludes several factors affecting power and economy.The problem of air heating includes a consideration of its influence on pressure, the consequent lowering of pressure being counteracted to some extent by the resulting improvements in carburetion and distribution and by more rapid and complete combustion; the effects of delayed combustion, with a study of the thermodynamic conditions and possible improvements; and the results that are actually obtainable from lean and rich fuel mixtures.Fuel economy is difficult because its factors conflict with those of power. The benefit of the expansion of any elastic working medium to economy is emphasized. Charts from previous papers, showing the ratio of air to fuel by weight, are referred to and discussed, best economy being obtained with mixtures leaner than those giving maximum power. The effects of air heating on fuel economy, the reduction of efficiency through friction losses and the various results obtainable from supercharging, are then enumerated and discussed.