Karwa, M., Biel, J., Hill, F., and Crocker, M., "Development of a Sulev Capable Technology for a Full Size Gasoline Pfi V8 Passenger Car," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1314, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1314.
A full size V8 demonstrator was developed to exhibit technology required to target LEV II emission levels. The testing involved the system integration of a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) technology, air gap exhaust components, optimized catalyst loading and control system and calibration. The development strategy utilizes the vacuum insulation, phase-change thermal storage capacity, and cold start calibration strategy to enable the catalyst to quickly reach light-off in 6 seconds over the FTP-75. All emission testing was conducted with two LA4 preparation cycles. This approach is able to reduce the heat loss of the catalytic converter brick during a 12 hour soak period and optimize the calibration warm-up strategy to reduce the amount of emissions during the first 60 seconds of the FTP-75.The vehicle used for the demonstration was a BMW 540I application. The modifications to the vehicle were limited to the control system, engine calibration and aftertreatment. The strategy used can be applied to light and heavy-duty on-road applications to optimize tailpipe emissions levels. The vehicle also meets nominal driveability requirements over the FTP-75 temperature ranges.