Mackey, D., Foley, L., McCartan, C., McEntee, P. et al., "Simulation of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Part Load," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1065, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1065.
Engine cycle simulation is an essential tool in the development of modern internal combustion engines. As engines evolve to meet tougher environmental and consumer demands, so must the analysis tools that the engineer employs. This paper reviews the application of such a tool, VIRTUAL 4-STROKE , in the modelling of a benchmark 1.9 Litre TDI engine.In an earlier paper presented to the Society  the authors presented results of a validation study on the same engine under full load operation. This paper expands on that work with validation of the simulation model against measured data over a full range of part load operation.