Armstrong, D., Hare, G., Kloeppel, V., Lawrence, M. et al., "Air Conformal Ice Detection System (A.C.I.D.S) for the Power Optimised, Ice Protected Aircraft / Rotorcraft," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2103, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-2103.
Ice accretion on flying surfaces affects the aerodynamic performance and handling qualities of the aircraft, and may require different pilot corrective action, dependent upon the surface that ice is accreting onto. The current methodology for ice detection usually relies on an indirect method, normally based on ambient air temperature, and liquid water content. When a pre-set threshold level is reached, the ice protection system is activated, whether or not ice is accreting on critical surfaces. This method is not cost effective or efficient for an ice protection system.Air Conformal Ice Detection obviates these problems by using a ‘direct’ method of detection, local to the critical area being monitored.