Christensen, S., Siebertz, K., Damsgaard, M., de Zee, M. et al., "Human Seat Modeling Using Inverse Dynamic Musculo-Skeletal Models," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2221, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-2221.
In this work a biomechanical model is used for simulation of muscle forces necessary to maintain the posture in a car seat under different support conditions.A computer-aided method is presented that includes the body as a mechanical multibody system actuated by the individual muscles. The analysis computes detailed information about forces in joints, muscles, and tendons, mechanical work, metabolism, efficiency, muscle trauma, etc. The analysis is based on an efficient inverse dynamics method using a min/max criterion to simulate the activation of redundant muscle configurations.The method is implemented in the body modeling system AnyBody. Using the AnyBody package and the body’s posture as determined by each vehicle’s specific seat geometry, researchers can analyze and calculate the necessary muscle reactive forces required to maintain the predetermined posture under influence of external forces.