Yang, K., Beillas, P., Zhang, L., Lee, J. et al., "Advanced Human Modeling for Injury Biomechanics Research," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2223, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-2223.
The two main motivations for Wayne State University (WSU) and Henry Ford Hospital (HFH) researchers to develop numerical human surrogates are advanced computing technology and a high-speed x-ray imaging device not available just a decade ago. This paper summarizes the capabilities and limitations of detailed component models of the human body, from head to foot, developed at WSU over the last decade (Zhang et al. 2001, Yang et al. 1998, Shah et al. 2001, Iwamoto et al. 2000, Lee et al. 2001 and Beillas et al. 2001). All of these models were validated against global response data obtained from relevant high-speed cadaveric tests. Additionally, some models were also validated against local kinematics of bones or soft tissues obtained using the high-speed x-ray system.All of these models have been scaled to conform to the key dimensions of a 50th percentile male. Because of this geometric compatibility, two or more component models can be integrated into a single model using the tie interface definition. Our current effort is to integrate all of these models into a whole body model, with emphasis on obtaining local kinematic response, using the high-speed x-ray system, for a more rigorous validation of the models. Upon the successful validation of local response, the whole body human model will be more advanced than the present-day crash dummies and will be the surrogate of choice for use in future automotive safety designs. Moreover, applications of these models could be extended to the intelligent design of a helmet which can provide equal protection for impacts from any direction as well as to the design of body armor and other ballistic protection devices.