Elmqvist, C., Lindström, F., Ångström, H., Grandin, B. et al., "Optimizing Engine Concepts by Using a Simple Model for Knock Prediction," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3123, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3123.
The objective of this paper is to present a simulation model for controlling combustion phasing in order to avoid knock in turbocharged SI engines. An empirically based knock model was integrated in a one-dimensional simulation tool. The empirical knock model was optimized and validated against engine tests for a variety of speeds and λ. This model can be used to optimize control strategies as well as design of new engine concepts.The model is able to predict knock onset with an accuracy of a few crank angle degrees. The phasing of the combustion provides information about optimal engine operating conditions.