Westin, F. and Ångström, H., "Simulation of a Turbocharged SI-Engine with Two Software and Comparison with Measured Data," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3124, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3124.
In this paper results from two different 1D engine simulation software (GT-Power and Virtual Engines) are compared to measured data. A list of simulation output properties is suggested, the order of which should be followed when calibrating the model, to make the simulation work as accurate and simple as possible. The model buildup is described in detail and the focus is on the turbocharger. For submodels aside from the turbocharger, the simplest possible options were selected, such as Wiebe model for the combustion, imposed measured wall temperatures for intercooler and manifolds. For the turbocharger model the paper describes in detail the adjustments and hands-on work that were necessary to achieve results close to measurements. Both transient simulations of the engine as well as simulations of thermocouple output are covered.