Batteh, J. and Curtis, E., "Modeling Transient Fuel Effects with Variable Cam Timing," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3126, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3126.
The physics of the mixture preparation process plays a critical role in transient engine control, a key enabler for satisfying increasingly stringent emissions requirements. This paper presents a fully transient, coupled model in Modelica for the liquid fuel behavior and thermodynamic engine cycle including thermal effects for a port fuel injection engine. Details of both the liquid fuel transport and cycle simulation models are provided. The integrated model is used to examine the effects of variable cam timing on the transient fuel behavior including comparisons between simulation results and experimental data under a variety of engine operating conditions.