Bowles, P. and Batteh, J., "A Transient, Multi-Cylinder Engine Model Using Modelica," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3127, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3127.
This paper describes a transient, thermodynamic, crank angle-based engine model in Modelica that can be used to simulate a range of advanced engine technologies. A single cylinder model is initially presented and described, along with its validation against steady-state dynamometer test data. Issues related to this single cylinder validation are discussed, including the appropriate conservation of hot residual gases under very early intake valve opening (IVO) conditions. From there, the extension from a single cylinder to a multi-cylinder V8 engine model is explained and simulation results are presented for a transient cylinder-deactivation scenario on a V8 engine.