EL-Hannouny, E., Gupta, S., Powell, C., Cheong, S. et al., "Near-Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Heavy-Duty Diesel Injectors," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3150, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3150.
The process of spray atomization has typically been understood in terms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory. However, this mechanism has failed to fully explain much of the measured data. For this reason a number of new atomization mechanisms have been proposed. The present study intends to gain an understanding of the spray dynamics and breakup processes in the near-nozzle region of heavy-duty diesel injector sprays. As this region is optically dense, synchrotron x-rays were used to gain new insights. This spray study was performed using a prototype common-rail injection system, by injecting a blend of diesel fuel and cerium-containing organometalic compound into a chamber filled with nitrogen at 1 atm. The x-rays were able to probe the dense region of the spray as close as 0.2 mm from the nozzle. These x-ray images showed two interesting features. The first was a breakup of the high density region about 22 μs After the Start Of Injection (ASOI). The second was observation of multiple flow fields for the nozzles at different times. These spray patterns changed over time and interacted with each other to form a single flow field. While further studies are being conducted, preliminary results are reported here.