Comfort, A., "An Introduction to Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Frictional Losses And Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy - Part I," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3225, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3225.
This paper examines sources and contributions of friction in heavy-duty diesel engines. Current and past work done on the characterization of diesel engine friction will be reviewed. It is also a goal to analyze each component system from a basic mechanics viewpoint highlighting some of the key friction producing phenomena. Different regimes of lubricated friction will be illustrated using a generic Stribeck diagram, with a focus on loading and relative velocities.Part II of this study will review lubricant effects on individual engine component friction as well as present data generated using commercial and military qualified lubricants in various bench tests, fired engine screening tests, and a modified version of the SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption Test using Army equipment.