Kass, M., Thomas, J., Lewis, S., Storey, J. et al., "Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Emissions from a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Using Ethanol as a Reductant," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3244, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3244.
NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400°C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.