Kim, C., Perng, C., and Zhang, D., "Transmission Main Control Orifice Flow Characteristics and Correlations," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1639, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1639.
In this paper we describe the application of a CFD methodology to characterize the orifice flows over a wide range of flow conditions with various geometrical features commonly found in hydraulic control systems. There are three objectives in carrying out this study. First, apply CFD analyses to provide physical insight into the orifice flow physics and clarify the use of relevant engineering parameters critical to hydraulic control applications. Second, quantify orifice discharge coefficient with respect to orifice diameter ratio, cross-sectional shape, plate thickness, orifice entrance and exit geometries. Third, support physical test and establish building block elements for hydraulic system modeling. The results obtained from CFD calculations agree very well with available data published in professional handbooks and fluid mechanics related textbooks, especially in the high Reynolds number flow regime. Conclusions and observations are summarized to highlight the effects on the discharge coefficients with respect to orifice diameter ratio, thickness, entrance and trailing edges, frontal shape and sectional geometry.