Thirumalainambi, R. and Bardina, J., "Internet Based Simulations of Debris Dispersion of Shuttle Launch," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3082, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-3082.
The debris dispersion model during launch is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors; 3D graphics combined with physical models are useful in understanding the complexity of launch and range operations. Modeling and simulation in this area mainly focuses on orbital dynamics and range safety concepts, including destruct limits, telemetry and tracking, and population risk. Particle explosion modeling is the process of simulating an explosion by breaking the rocket into many pieces. The particles are scattered throughout their motion using the laws of physics eventually coming to rest. The size of the foot print explains the type of explosion and distribution of the particles. The shuttle launch and range operations discussed in this paper are based on the operations of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable modeling behaviors of Shuttle launches.