Santos, D., Pereira, M., Henriques, V., and Cairo, C., "Production of Ti-35Nb Alloy by Powder Metallurgy for Aerospace Application," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3339, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-3339.
Titanium and its alloys provide high strength-to-weight ratios, good fatigue strength and increased corrosion resistance compared with others materials. Its acceptance in aerospace has been limited by costs considerations such as high cost of raw material, high buy-to-fly ratios and expensive machining operations. Significant cost reductions can be obtained by vacuum sintering and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques by producing near net shapes and consequently minimizing material waste and machining time. The Ti 35Nb alloy exhibit a low modulus of elasticity. Stemming from the unique combination of high strength, low modulus of elasticity and low density, this alloy is intrinsically more resistant to shock and explosion damages than most other engineering materials. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900 and 1600 °C, in vacuum. Sintering behavior was studied by means of dilatometry. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. Density was measured by Archimedes method.