Hoke, P. and Greiner, C., "Vehicle Paint Radiation Properties and Affect on Vehicle Soak Temperature, Climate Control System Load, and Fuel Economy," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1880, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1880.
Vehicle thermal loads in sunny climates are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar thermal energy. Reduction of the absorptivity in the near infrared (IR) spectrum would decrease vehicle soak temperatures, reduce air conditioning power consumption and not affect the vehicle visible spectrum radiation properties (color). The literature  indicates that paint formulations with carbon-black pigment removed or reduced can be made to be reflective to near infrared frequencies. Experiments indicated that the reflectivity can be improved with existing basecoats and primers. Experiments and numerical simulations indicate that vehicle soak temperatures can be reduced by over 2 °C with existing basecoats and primers.