Zalosh, R. and Weyandt, N., "Hydrogen Fuel Tank Fire Exposure Burst Test," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1886, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1886.
A fire exposure test was conducted on a 72.4 liter composite (Type HGV-4) hydrogen fuel tank at an initial hydrogen pressure of 34.3 MPa (ca 5000 psi). No Pressure Relief Device was installed on the tank to ensure catastrophic failure for analysis. The cylinder ruptured at 35.7 MPa after a 370 kW fire exposure for 6 min 27 seconds. Blast wave pressures measured along a line perpendicular to the cylinder axis were 18% to 25% less the values calculated from ideal blast wave correlations using a blast energy of 13.4 MJ, which is based on the ideal gas internal energy at the 35.7 MPa burst pressure. The resulting hydrogen fireball maximum diameter of 7.7 m is about 19% less than the value predicted from existing correlations using the 1.64 kg hydrogen mass in the tank.