Holzmann, F., Sulzmann, A., Spiegelberg, G., Siegwart, R. et al., "SPARC Technology - Concept of a New Safety Relevant Architecture," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3514, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-3514.
This paper introduces a concept of predictive active safety by means of a full redundant architecture with the driver, from the perception of the environment to the vehicle controllers. The bottleneck of the current driver-vehicle association will be analyzed first. Then a virtual driver and the safety envelope of the different maneuvers will be described. A decision control will be presented that it matches the driver's command in this safety envelope. It is designed to give adequate feedback to the driver and can safely perform the command to the optimum of the chosen maneuver.