Kim, I., Chen, H., and Shulze, R., "A Rear Spoiler of a New Type that Reduces the Aerodynamic Forces on a Mini-Van," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1631, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1631.
The Low Mass Vehicle (LMV) that is a minivan designed to compete with the Toyota Echo but with 30% less mass has been used for the research in the Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems. To reduce the aerodynamic forces on the LMV, the present authors have developed a rear spoiler of a new type based on the principles of fluid dynamics and through numerical computations. This new spoiler has been developed in such a way that the aerodynamic drag as well as lift on vehicles having a bluff back can be reduced when the new spoiler is attached to them. Numerical simulations show that the aerodynamic drag and lift on the LMV moving at 30 m/s reduce by 5 % and more than 100 %, respectively, when the new spoiler is attached to it.