Young, P., Tabor, G., Collins, T., Richterova, J. et al., "Automating the Generation of 3D Finite Element Models Based on Medical Imaging Data," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-2371, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-2371.
Novel techniques have been developed to convert 3D image data, obtained from a range of imaging modalities (MRI, CT, Ultrasound, confocal microscopy), automatically into numerical meshes suitable for Finite Element (FE) and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. The ease and robustness with which simulation models can be generated have opened the door to the generation of subject specific models, which can be used to explore a wide range of problems from impacts to the body through to vascular flows. A number of examples will be shown which illustrate the use of these techniques in digital human modeling, including simulation of the post-operative performance of a hip implant, modelling of the human foot, spine and eye, and CFD analysis of airflow through the human respiratory system. The different case studies illustrate how complex biological models can be modelled with not only a much higher degree of accuracy but also in a fraction of the time than was previously possible.