Merritt, P., Huang, Y., Khair, M., and Pan, J., "Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Alternate Diesel Combustion Modes," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3307, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3307.
Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH)) were characterized for the following alternate diesel combustion modes: premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PCCI and LTC were studied on a PSA light-duty high-speed diesel engine. Engine-out emissions of carbonyl compounds were significantly increased for all LTC modes and for PCCI-Lean conditions as compared to diesel operation; however, PCCI-Rich produced much lower carbonyl emissions than diesel operations. For PAH compounds, emissions were found to be substantially increased over baseline diesel operation for LTC-Lean, LTC-Rich, and PCCI-Lean conditions. PCCI-Rich operation, however, gave PAH emission rates comparable to baseline diesel operation. Total NPAH emissions were much higher for LTC-Lean and LTC-Rich operation as compared to baseline diesel operation.