Stewart, J. and Law, E., "Investigation of Rollover, Lateral Handling, and Obstacle Avoidance Maneuvers of Tactical Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3569, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3569.
Current military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan are unique because the battlefield can be described as a non-linear, asymmetrical environment. Units operate in zones that are susceptible to enemy contact from any direction at any time. The response to these issues has been the addition of add-on armor to HMMWV's and other tactical vehicles. The retro-fitting of armor to these vehicles has resulted in many accidents due to rollover and instability. The goal of this paper is to determine possible causes of the instability and rollover of up-armored tactical vehicles and to develop simulation tools that can analyze the steady-state and transient dynamics of the vehicles. Models and simulations include a steady-state rollover scenario, analysis of understeer gradient, and a transient handling analysis that uses models of both a human driver and a vehicle to analyze vehicle response to an obstacle avoidance maneuver.