Jasper, M., Rudell, K., and Sakurai, H., "The Application of Design of Experiments to CFD Studies of Racecar Wing Configurations," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3645, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3645.
There are many design parameters in designing multi-element racecar wings even after the airfoil to be used has been determined. To choose the best parameter values for the wings of a Formula SAE car, Computational Fluid Dynamics combined with highly fractional factorial design of experiments was used. The CFD results were analyzed for the effectiveness of each parameter in increasing the down force, and effective parameters were used for the next CFD analyses with a fractional factorial design for choosing the best parameter values. The designed wings satisfied the target performance criteria.