Martini, G., Manfredi, U., Mellios, G., Krasenbrink, A. et al., "Effects of Gasoline Vapour Pressure and Ethanol Content on Evaporative Emissions from Modern European Cars," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1928, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-1928.
A test programme designed to investigate the influence of gasoline vapour pressure and ethanol content on evaporative emissions from modern passenger cars was carried out by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission together with CONCAWE and EUCAR. Seven gasoline passenger cars representative of current EURO 3/4 emissions technology were tested for evaporative emissions with ten different test fuels. The test fuel matrix comprised 60 and 70 kPa hydrocarbon base fuels with 5 and 10% ethanol splash blends and 5 and 10% ethanol matched volatility blends. The test protocol was based on the European homologation test procedure. Although the test protocol turned out to have a significant influence on the results, the programme provided valuable information and it was possible to draw several clear conclusions.