Pede, G., Rossi, E., Chiesa, M., and Ortenzi, F., "Test of blends of hydrogen and natural gas in a light duty vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2045, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-2045.
Hydrogen-enriched combustion has been studied by several institutions and companies over the last three decades. The purpose of adding hydrogen to conventional fuels is to extend the lean limit of combustion because hydrogen improves flame stability and allows a lower temperature combustion. Even with stoichiometric mixture, HCNG advantages had been demonstrated, since blends determine a reduction of noxious emissions. In the framework of an EU project called BONG-HY, bench tests with HCNG on a natural gas vehicle had been carried on at ENEA. Results of lab tests showed a fair improvement of the efficiency and CO2 emissions as well as an overall improvement regarding local pollutants.