Crouse, B., Freed, D., Senthooran, S., Ullrich, F. et al., "Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2400, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-2400.
A computational analysis of underbody wind-noise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.