Alicea, B., "Towards a Theory of Human Intraspecific Variation for Ergonomics and Human Modeling," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2461, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-2461.
Human intraspecific variation is a complex problem, but may be better understood by using computational models in tandem with knowledge about the genetic bases of phenotypic traits. These results can be used in a multitude of settings. To move closer to this goal, biologically-realistic mappings between genotype and phenotype are constructed using genetic algorithm and neural network-like models. These models allow for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to be characterized in the resulting phenotype. Two types of model are introduced: a simple, two-layer model, and a more complex model. The final section will focus on trends of growth and development in relation to relationship to modeling anthropometric traits and other morphological phenomena.