Yu, J. and Johnson, M., "Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-Off Limit Performance," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 1(1):498-503, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0587.
A simulation tool has been developed for predicting steering effort of a vehicle during steering power-assist system failure. The vehicle system is modeled with the inclusion of a system-level vehicle model and a steering system model that are linked together through the steering moment at the kingpin and front road wheel angle. A driver model has also been designed to provide closed-loop steering angular input to make the car follow a certain target path. The simulation model is correlated well with actual vehicle tests under various steering input and lateral acceleration conditions. Also illustrated are some examples of comparison between measured and simulated sensitivity study for selected factors.