Chadwell, C. and Dingle, P., "Effect of Diesel and Water Co-injection with Real-Time Control on Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1190, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1190.
A system for injection of diesel fuel and water with real-time control, or real-time water injection (RTWI), was developed and applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine. The RTWI system featured electronic unit pumps that delivered metered volumes of water to electronic unit injectors (EUI) modified to incorporate the water addition passages. The water and diesel mixed in the injector tip such that the initial portion of the injection contained mostly diesel fuel, while the balance of the injection was a water and diesel mixture. With this hardware, real-time cycle-by-cycle control of water mass was used to mitigate soot formation during diesel combustion. Using RTWI alone, NOx emissions were reduced by 42%. Using high-pressure-loop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and conventional diesel combustion with RTWI, the NOx was reduced by 82%. Perhaps the most promising results obtained with the RTWI system were the simultaneous NOx and smoke reductions during a load step transient while realizing a faster torque rise than otherwise obtainable within smoke limits.