Aatola, H., Larmi, M., Sarjovaara, T., and Mikkonen, S., "Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) as a Renewable Diesel Fuel: Trade-off between NOx, Particulate Emission, and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):1251-1262, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2500.
Hydrotreating of vegetable oils or animal fats is an alternative process to esterification for producing biobased diesel fuels. Hydrotreated products are also called renewable diesel fuels.Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) do not have the detrimental effects of ester-type biodiesel fuels, like increased NOx emission, deposit formation, storage stability problems, more rapid aging of engine oil or poor cold properties. HVOs are straight chain paraffinic hydrocarbons that are free of aromatics, oxygen and sulfur and have high cetane numbers.In this paper, NOx - particulate emission trade-off and NOx - fuel consumption trade-off are studied using different fuel injection timings in a turbocharged charge air cooled common rail heavy duty diesel engine. Tested fuels were sulfur free diesel fuel, neat HVO, and a 30% HVO + 70% diesel fuel blend.The study shows that there is potential for optimizing engine settings together with enhanced fuel composition. HVO could be used in optimized low emission diesel power trains in captive fleet applications like city buses, indoor fork-lift trucks, or mine vehicles.