Beauchamp, G., Hessel, D., Rose, N., Fenton, S. et al., "Determining Vehicle Steering and Braking from Yaw Mark Striations," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Mech. Syst. 2(1):291-307, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0092.
This paper presents equations that relate the orientation and spacing of yaw mark striations to the vehicle braking and steering levels present at the time the striations were deposited. These equations, thus, provide a link between physical evidence deposited on a roadway during a crash (the tire mark striations) and actions taken by the driver during that crash (steering and braking inputs). This paper also presents physical yaw tests during which striated yaw marks were deposited. Analysis of these tests is conducted to address the degree to which the presented equations can be used to determine a driver’s actual steering and braking inputs. As a result of this testing and analysis, it was concluded that striated tire marks can offer a meaningful glimpse into the steering and braking behavior of the driver of a yawing vehicle. It was also found that consideration of yaw striations allows for the reconstruction of a vehicle’s post-impact yaw motion from a single tire mark.