Kinjawadekar, T., Dixit, N., Heydinger, G., Guenther, D. et al., "Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using CarSim," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0452, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0452.
The paper discusses the development of a vehicle dynamics model and model validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition in CarSim.The accuracy of results obtained from simulations depends on the realism of the model which in turn depends on the measured data used to define the model parameters. The paper describes the tests used to measure the vehicle data and also gives a detailed account of the methodology used to determine parameters for the CarSim Ford Expedition model.The vehicle model was validated by comparing simulation results with experimental testing. Bounce and Roll tests in CarSim were used to validate the suspension and steering kinematics and compliances. Field test data of the Sine with Dwell maneuver was used for the vehicle model validation. The paper also discusses the development of a functional electronic stability control system and its effect on vehicle handling response in the Sine with Dwell maneuver.