Bono, T., Kizaki, M., Mizuno, H., Nonobe, Y. et al., "Development of New TOYOTA FCHV-adv Fuel Cell System," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1003, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1003.
Since 1992, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been working on the development of fuel cell system technology. TMC is designing principal components in-house, including fuel cell stacks, high-pressure hydrogen storage tank systems, and hybrid systems. TMC developed the '02 model TOYOTA FCHV, the world-first market-ready fuel cell vehicle, and started limited lease of the vehicles in December 2002. In June 2008, TMC developed a new TOYOTA FCHV-adv which obtained vehicle type certification in Japan, and is currently available for leasing in Japan and the United States. In the development of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv, TMC has improved the cruising range and cold start/drive capability from the previous TOYOTA FCHV. The TOYOTA FCHV-adv has achieved an actual cruising range of over 500 km, which is equivalent to that of current gasoline vehicles. In addition, the TOYOTA FCHV-adv has proven starting/driving capability at -30°C temperature. This paper introduces the TOYOTA FCHV-adv fuel cell system that has demonstrated practical cruising range and cold start/drive capability.