Barabás, I. and Todoruţ, A., "Key Fuel Properties of Biodiesel-diesel Fuel-ethanol Blends," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1810, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1810.
The diesel biodiesel-diesel oil-bioethanol mixture displays real potential uses as an alternative fuel. The idea stands on the fact that a series of properties of the two biofuels complete each other. Therefore, in this study, biodiesel and bioethanol were blended with commercial diesel fuel at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and 30% on a volume basis to characterize the key fuel properties of the blends such as density, viscosity, surface tension, lubricity, flash point and cold filter plugging point. The densities of the diesel oil-biodiesel-bioethanol blends are in the range of 841-852 kg/m₃, very close to the diesel fuel requirement related in EN 590. In the case of the investigated blends kinematic viscosity is in the range of 2.176...2.756 mm₂/s. The blends flash points that containing 5% ethanol are in the range of 16...18°C, and which containing 10% ethanol are less than 16°C. Measured values of surface tensions are in the range of 28.47...34.83 mN/m.