Liu, W., Choi, K., Soulami, A., Sun, X. et al., "Effects of Forming Induced Phase Transformation on Crushing Behavior of TRIP Steel," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0216, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0216.
In this paper, results of finite element crash simulation are presented for a TRIP steel side rail with and without considering the phase transformation during forming operations. A homogeneous phase transformation model is adapted to model the mechanical behavior of the austenite-to-martensite phase. The forming process of TRIP steels is simulated with the implementation of the material model. The distribution and volume fraction of the martensite in TRIP steels may be greatly influenced by various factors during forming process and subsequently contribute to the behavior of the formed TRIP steels during the crushing process. The results indicate that, with the forming induced phase transformation, higher energy absorption of the side rail can be achieved. The phase transformation enhances the strength of the side rail.